A 15 year-old-male presents for evaluation after a syncopal episode while playing football. He denies any current headache, chest pain, or shortness of breath. He admits to feeling heart palpitations prior to losing consciousness.
A 28-year-old woman is evaluated for chest pain which is considered to be esophageal in nature. Her work-up has included a normal upper endoscopy, a normal barium swallow, and a normal 24-hour pH/impedance study.