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Overt Upper GI Bleeding: What to Do First?

Overt Upper GI Bleeding: What to Do First?

American College of Gastroenterology recommendations for initial assessment and risk stratification for patients with ulcer bleeding include which of the following?

a. Hemodynamic status should be assessed immediately on presentation and resuscitative measures begun as needed.
b. Blood transfusions should target hemoglobin ≥7 g/dL, with higher hemoglobin levels targeted in patients with clinical evidence of intravascular volume depletion or comorbidities.
c. Risk assessment should be performed to stratify patients into higher- and lower-risk categories and may assist in initial decisions, such as timing of endoscopy, time of discharge, and level of care.
d. A, B, and C
 

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