The 4 Positions of Precision Medicine
Position 1: Genetic testing, like any testing, should be guided by the best interests of the patient, scientific evi- dence, and ethical standards. The physician's ethical responsibility to practice high-value care requires consid- eration of the benefits and harms of any test based on the scientific evidence.
Position 2: Physicians should prepare to engage with patients in discussions about the opportunities and ethi- cal challenges of genetic testing and precision medicine.
Position 3: Patients will need assistance from their physicians to understand the risks, benefits, and uncer- tainty of direct-to-consumer genetic medical testing.
Position 4: Physicians, health care systems, and others with access to patient data should safeguard the privacy, confidentiality, and security of patient information, includ- ing genomic information.